1.5 Representation of Data/Information

Basic component of Computer like CPU, RAM etc are transistors. These are made of a number of Integrated circuits (ICs), which contain transistors. These transistors set like a two-way switch which can be either on or off. These transistors have just two operating states; either on or off. When a transistor is switched on, it is said to represent the value 1. Conversely, when the transistor is switched off, it is said to represent the value 0. The values 0 and 1 are the only two digits with which Computer works.

Bits and Bytes

The term Bit is an acronym for Binary digit. The bit is the smallest piece of information that the Computer can work with. The values 0 and 1 are called Bits. Bits are grouped together to form a larger chunk of information called a Byte. A byte consists of eight bits that the Computer stores and processes as a single entry. A byte represents one character of data (either a letter of the alphabet, decimal digit, or symbol). The Computer can store individual bytes in its memory and later retrieve them.

Representing Data in Computer

1 Byte - 8 Bits
1 Kilobyte - 1024 Bytes
1 Megabyte - 1024 Kilobytes
1 Gigabyte - 1024 Terabyte