2.2.2  Some popular Operating System (LINUX, WINDOWS)


Linux is an operating system that was initially created as a hobby by a young student,Linus Torvalds, in 1991. In 1994 the first version of Linux Kernel was released on Internet. At the end of 2004, 50 % Linux has been adopted worldwide primarily as a server platform.From 2007 various well known computer manufactures have started deliver ing some of the models they are manufacturing with Linux preloaded.

Linux is a example of Open Source Code Operating System. It is having nearby all the features present in Unix Operating System. Linux also supports TCP/IP protocol, and we can access Local Area Network and Internet.

Linux is generally provided with two types of Graphical User Interface one is KDE and other is Gnome. Other interfaces are also available. Command interpreter is also available.The programs developed for Windows do not run on Linux and similarly programs developed for Linux do not run on Windows.

Today Linux is used in nearby every field as Government and Private Offices,Education, Various Trainings, Homes, Businesses and other. Linux was primarily written for 386 microcomputers but presently it is used on various types of computers ranging fromMicro to Super.

Now most of the versions of Linux are available at very reasonable cost or sometime totally free of cost. Also Linux provides more security compared to Windows. Due to all these features of Linux it is overriding the Unix and Windows Operating Systems. Various Computer based organizations are now using Linux Operating System for their PCs.


Windows family of operating systems are based on Graphic User Interface (GUI) and can be used on a desktop Computer or as operating system for a node in a Network.


The term Windows 9x refers to three operating systems viz. Windows-95, Windows-98 and Windows-me. Windows-95 was released in the year 1995, It was plain and simple operating system, mainly developed for stand-alone computers.

Windows-98 was released in the year 1998. In was enhanced version of Windows-95.Internet related aspects were included in it and Internet Explorer, the web browser, was made part of it.

Another version of Windows, called Windows-me was released in the year 2000. Me stands for MillEnnium. It was released as enhanced version of Windows-98 but had many internal problems, due to which it used to frequently crash. Windows-me had improved multimedia capabilities, video editing features and enhanced Internet facilities.

Windows XP

Yet another improved version of Windows, called Windows-XP was released in the year 2001. It is 32-bit operating system that is quite popular on personal computers and laptops. It is quite stable product and is being continuously used till date. Many variations of Windows XP are there. They are named as Windows XP Professional, Windows XP Home, Windows XP Media center Editing and Windows-XP Embedded. The Microsoft has created 64-bit version of Windows-XP to run on them. Some of the existing features of Windows XP are given below:

1. Built on the Windows-NT Engine:

It is built on the field proven code of Windows-NT and Windows 2000, which are 32-bit operating systems and support fully protected memory model.

2. Enhanced Device Driver Verification:

When you install a new service on the system, Window, XP tests its driver rigorously. If the driver passes the test, its stability is ensured. This feature makes sure that system remains stable in most of the odd situations.

3. Windows File Protection Mechanism:

This feature protects core system files from being overwritten by the installation applications. If a file is over written, “Windows file protection" feature will restore the correct version of the file.

4. Primitive Multitasking Architecture:

Due to this feature, multi-tasking mechanism has been improved in Windows-XP. It now ensures better response and better stability.

5. Scalable Memory and Processor Support:

Due to this feature, memory up to 4GB and two symmetric microprocessors can be supported in the system.

6. Improvised Protection Mechanism:

Protection mechanisms have been improved at encryption and decryption level and at communication and transportation level also. Thus XP protects the information from hackers to a large extent.

7. Smart Card Support:

Smart card capabilities have been included in the operating system. It builds faster and easier working environment.

8. Firewall Enhancements:

To reduce the network risk and build tight security zone, lot of firewall features have been included within the operating system.

9. Fresh Visual Design:

Although the working environment in Windows XP is quite similar to that of its elder brothers, Windows-9x, but it has a free look.

10. Rich Digital Media Support:

Windows-XP provides rich digital media support. Its digital media player version 9 is quite powerful and provides facilities for,

  • View rich media information.
  • Receive best possible audio/video quality.
  • Tune to at least 3,000 internet radio stations.
  • Create custom CDs that are very fast.
  • View DVD movies.

11. Integrated CD burring support:

Utilities for writing on CD-R and CD-RW have been incorporated in Windows Explorer of Windows-XP. Now the user need not buy third party software for it.

12. Dual view:

In Windows-XP, a single computer desktop can be displayed on two monitors.

13. Enhanced Customization Features:

Rich customization facilities have been incorporated in Windows-XP. Using these utilities, users and administrators can configure, customize and troubleshoot numerous Windows-XP functions.


Windows 7

Windows 7 is a latest OS from Microsoft, it is a series of operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, net books, tablet PCs, and media center PCs.
It have more additional feature than Windows XP .It have a following future:
Everyday tasks are simpler: Scan all your open windows with Live Taskbar Previews. Find a file, connect to a network, or use Snap to arrange a couple windows side by side. All with two or three clicks.
Your PC will work the way you want: Make it yours with personalization and be ready to go with fast Sleep and Resume. Use more of your older programs with Windows XP Mode. Protect your data and be more secure with less effort.
Hard Ware: Use a touch-screen instead of a mouse. Connect to printers fast with Location Aware Printing Share music, photos, and videos throughout your home with Play To. Use your PC to record live TV and watch Internet TV